Newgate Prison

Newgate Prison closed in 1902.

It had been operating for about 700 years. It was notorious and had held some surprising criminals such as:

  • Daniel Defoe (Who wrote Moll Flanders and Robinson Crusoe
  • William Kidd (the pirate known as Captain Kidd)
  • Lord George Gordon – UK politician whom the Gordon Riots are named after
  • Sir Thomas Malory – highwayman, possible author of Le Morte d’Arthur
  • Catherine Murphy, an English counterfeiter who became the last woman to be officially executed by burning in England and Great Britain in 1789 – Ouch!

And many, many others. Reformer Elizabeth Fry had for some time been particularly concerned at the conditions in which female prisoners and their children were held (yes children went to prison or were born in prison and stayed with their parents). She presented credible evidence to the House of Commons and improvements were made. In 1858, the interior was rebuilt with individual cells.

A big draw for Newgate were public hangings (I can’t think of anything worse!) these were crowded affairs and many people would gather to see these criminals hang. In fact one of the great events in the early years of Queen Victoria’s reign was a public hanging, a bit like a royal wedding in that the number of spectators might range anywhere from 20,000 up to 100,000, the number, according to The Times, attending Kirkdale Gaol in Liverpool for the mutiple hanging of four men on 11 September 1863.

In amongst the mob one found many of the labouring classes; mill-hands, factory girls and women, bricklayer’s labourers and dock workmen, either hoping for some entertainment on their way to work or enjoying St. Monday. Women and children were frequent spectators and at the last public execution in England, The Times commented on the “blue velvet hats and huge white feathers which lined the great beams which kept the mass from crushing each other in their eagerness to see a man put to death.” At any execution one might see ragged children darting to and fro to “play their usual pranks at the foot of the gallows.”

For about 60% of offences punishable by the death sentence, the magistrates recorded that it had been carried out, then gave a less serious punishment. As the century went on, the number of people who were sentenced to be hanged decreased. Between 1801 and 1837, 13 executions took place in Bedford, but between 1838 and 1878 there were only 4. Despite this, between 1800 and 1900, of the 3524 people sentenced to hang in England and Wales, only 1353 were for murder.

From 1868, public executions were discontinued and executions were carried out on gallows inside Newgate. Michael Barrett was the last man to be hanged in public outside Newgate Prison (and the last person to be publicly executed in Great Britain) on 26 May 1868. In total (publicly or otherwise), 1,169 people were executed at the prison.

The Old Bailey now stands on the site of Newgate Prison.

 

Sherlock – a timeline

Ah Sherlock…we have been so blessed by the incarnations of Sherlock Holmes and Dr John H. Watson including William Gillette, John Barrymore, Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, Sir John Geilgud, Carelton Hobbs, Peter Cushing, Christopher Lee, Leonard Nimoy, Christopher Plummer, Vasily Lavanov, Charlton Heston, Jeremy Brett, Clive Merrison, Robert Downey Jr, Matt Frewer, Jonny Lee Miller and Benedict Cumberbatch.

sherlock-holmesSo

Here’s a reading time line for anyone who is a fan of Holmes…and of course Watson!

1880
July 3, Saturday — “The Gloria Scott”

1881
June 23, Thursday — “The Musgrave Ritual”
July 16, 1881, Saturday — Holmes meets Watson in Chapter One of A Study in Scarlet

1883
April 1, Sunday — “The Speckled Band”

1884
March 4, Tuesday — The investigation of A Study in Scarlet
March 29, Saturday — “The Yellow Face”

1885
January 6, Tuesday — “The Red Circle”

1886
February 26, Friday — “The Beryl Coronet”
October 2, Saturday — “The Resident Patient”

1887
April 26, Tuesday — “The Reigate Squires”
July 19, Tuesday — “The Second Stain”
July 29, Friday — “The Naval Treaty”
August 30, Tuesday — “The Crooked Man”
September 16, Friday — “The Five Orange Pips”
October 6, Thursday — “The Noble Bachelor”

1888
January 7, Saturday — The Valley of Fear
March 20, Tuesday — “A Scandal in Bohemia”
April 16, Monday — “A Case of Identity”
June 20, Wednesday — “The Greek Interpreter”
September 4, Tuesday — The Sign of the Four
October 25, Thursday — “Silver Blaze”

1889
June 1, Saturday — “The Stock-broker’s Clerk”
June 8, Saturday — “The Boscombe Valley Mystery”
June 21, Friday — “The Man with the Twisted Lip”
June 30, Sunday — “The Engineer’s Thumb”
August 30, Friday — “The Cardboard Box”
October 1, Tuesday — The Hound of the Baskervilles
December 27, Friday — “The Blue Carbuncle”

1890
March 18, Tuesday — “The Copper Beeches”
October 11, Saturday — “The Red-Headed League”

1891
January 12, Monday — “Charles Augustus Milverton”
April 23, Friday — “The Final Problem”

1892
March 24, Thursday — “Wisteria Lodge”

1893
March 15, Wednesday — “Three Gables”

1894
April 3, Tuesday — “The Empty House”
June 1, Friday — “The Mazarin Stone”
August 1, Wednesday — “The Norwood Builder”
November 23, Friday — “The Gold Pince-nez”

1895
April 20, Saturday — “The Solitary Cyclist”
May 6, Monday — “The Three Students”
July 10, Wednesday — “Black Peter”
November 21, Thursday — “The Bruce-Partington Plans”

1896
September 22, Tuesday — “The Veiled Lodger”

1897
February 6, Saturday — “The Missing Three-Quarter”
February 15, Monday — “Abbey Grange”
March 16, Tuesday — “The Devil’s Foot”

1898
July 25, Monday — “The Dancing Men”
August 20, Saturday — “The Retired Colourman”

1900
October 4, Thursday — “Thor Bridge”

1901
May 16, Thursday — “Priory School”
November 19, Tuesday — “The Sussex Vampire”

1902
June 4, Wednesday — “The Six Napoleons”
June 19, Thursday — “The Three Garridebs”
July 26, Saturday — “The Disappearance of Lady Francis Carfax”
September 3, Wednesday — “The Illustrious Client”

1903
January 21, Wednesday — “The Blanched Soldier”
May 26, Tuesday — “Shoscombe Old Place”
September 6, Sunday — “The Creeping Man”
November 8, Sunday — “The Dying Detective”

1907
July 30, Tuesday — “The Lion’s Mane”

1914
August 2, Sunday — “His Last Bow”

TB…it’s back in the UK…

Royal Sea Bathing Victoria Ward…but did it ever go away?

World TB Day on 24 March commemorates the discovery of the causative agent of tuberculosis by Robert Koch in 1882. It aims to raise global public awareness of TB.

So…is this quote from a Victorian source or Modern Source?

‘Homelessness is a risk factor for TB, but it is also a risk factor for failure to treat and cure TB leading to an increase in suffering and expense, reduced accessibility to services, and a higher risk of community transmission’.

Sadly a modern source. In 2014:

  • There were 6,520 TB cases
  • 39% of cases were in London
  • 72% of cases were among non-UK born people
  • 10% of people with TB had at least one social risk factor for TB (a history of alcohol or drug misuse, homelessness or imprisonment)
  • 30% of people with pulmonary TB waited over four months from onset of symptoms to beginning treatment

Tuberculosis or Consumption as was known was a major disease throughout Victoria’s reign, killing one in four of its sufferers. London had the highest rate of TB admissions (15.3 per 100,000 population), with North Yorkshire and the Humber having the lowest (1.5 per 100,000 population). Among TB’s most famous victims were Emily Brontë, who succumbed to the bacterial infection in 1848, and Florence Nightingale in 1910.

I find it rather shocking that cuts in public finance are taking us back to the awful days of those awful diseases.

London 1839

This is (as far as I know) the oldest remaining image of London. I’m afraid I don’t know where it is but wow!!

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Victorian Images

 

A variety of images from the late Victorian era, all from London…there are some lovely shots here…enjoy!

Victorian Cooking…Orange Fritters

Orange Fritters

Mix two tablespoonfuls of flour smoothly with one well-beaten egg, a quarter of an ounce of butter, and a quarter of a pint of cream, and add a pinch of salt and a dessert-spoonful of brandy.

Peel four or five large sweet oranges; take away the white pith, and divide them into sections without breaking the thin skin that divides them. Dip the pieces first into sherry, then into sifted sugar, and afterwards into the batter.

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Fry them in hot lard until they are lightly browned. Drain them on blotting paper to free them entirely from fat, and serve piled high on a hot napkin, with sifted sugar strewn over them. Time, eight or ten minutes to fry the oranges. Sufficient for four or five persons.

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This a tasty and easy recipe to follow and I added some Cinnamon…Highly recommended!

Victorian cooking…Chicken Pie Recipe

Our food today owes much to its Victorian forebears so I have decided to feature some of the recipes I have cooked and the fun of trying to figure out hoe to cook as near to the real thing.

img11216_4So this Chicken Pie recipe is from Cassell’s New Dictionary of Cookery (I have a 1910 edition but was first published in 1892) which boasts about 10,000 recipes!

I managed to pick my edition up for about £20 but you can a pdf/kindle copy here

 

Chicken Pie

20160102_194700Take two large chickens, (I used two large breast) and cut them into neat joints. Put the trimmings, neck, and bones of the legs into a stewpan, with some pepper and salt, a blade of mace, an onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, and a little water, or stock.

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Let these simmer gently for one hour and a half. They are to make gravy. Line the edges of a pie-dish with a good crust. Put a layer of chicken at the bottom, and then a layer of ham cut in slices and over that some. (I used ham, chicken and herbs. simmered for 1.5 hours, drained and had a lovely light gravy)

Sausage-meat or forcemeat, (forcemeat is essentially Victorian stuffing and is lovely)

Forcemeat 417 (Mrs Beeton)

417. INGREDIENTS – 2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, 1/4 lb. of suet, the rind of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6 oz. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs.

20160102_175411Mode – Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet, lemon-peel, and herbs, taking particular care that all be very finely minced; add a seasoning to taste, of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend all thoroughly together with the bread crumbs, before wetting. Now beat and strain the eggs, work these up with the other 20160102_180011ingredients, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry of a nice brown, in boiling lard, or put them on a tin
and bake for 1/2 hour in a moderate oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour should predominate greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient body to cut with a knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate forcemeat, it is advisable to pound the ingredients together before binding with the egg; but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely answers the purpose. Average cost, 8d.

Sufficient for a turkey, a moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.

20160102_183022and some hard-boiled eggs cut in slices. Repeat until the dish is full. Pour over all a cupful of water or white stock, and place a cover on the top. Brush over it the yolk of an egg. Bake in a good oven.

When the pie has been in the oven about half an hour, place a piece of paper over the top to prevent the crust from being
frizzled before the meat is sufficiently cooked. When it is ready, raise the cover and pour in the gravy made from the bones. Put a trussing- needle into the pie to ascertain whether it is sufficiently cooked. If it goes through easily, take the pie out.

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A pie made with two chickens, sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 6s.